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养猪生产中的细节管理
  管理重在细节,细节决定品质,品质影响未来,细节管理在我国各行各业都尤为关键。特别是养猪行业面对的是活体动物,经常在生产管理和技术管理过程中出现很多细节问题,而部分养殖户往往忽视这些细节管理,造成猪群生产水平不高,经济效益提升困难。笔者就养猪生产过程中的几个主要环节,浅谈几个容易漏管的细节问题。
一、后备种猪选留过程中的细节管理
1、后备公猪
  选留种公猪时,养殖户一般较注重血统和体型外貌,除此之外有些关键性细节也需重视。一是查看奶头数。不论是公猪还是母猪,奶头的遗传都是显性的且是非常稳定的,所以奶头少、发育不好或不整齐的公猪不能选留。二是注重繁殖性能。体型外貌好但繁殖性能差的公猪不能选留。三是细微观察。驱赶公猪时观察其应激情况,呼吸发生变化、尾根不停地抖动、全身有轻微发红或抖动、口流唾液的公猪不能选留。四是检查精液。精子稀少、运动不规则、发育不正常且定期检查3次以上不合格的公猪不能选留。
2、后备母猪
  许多养殖户在选留后备母猪时一般较注重奶头数和体型,除此之外还有一些细节必须注意。一是母猪阴户应直线下垂,如果阴户很小且向上,一般患有先天性骨盘狭窄,尽量不要选留。二是后备母猪小群饲养(每栏3~5头)时,除满足其对能量、赖氨酸(日需要量19~21g)、钙、有效磷和维生素的需要外,严禁饲喂霉变饲料,杜绝使用杂粕,建议采取自由采食的方式给料。三是超过8.5月龄不发情、9.0月龄未配种的后备母猪,不能留作种用。四是生长速度慢、到了配种月龄却低于配种体重的后备母猪(僵猪),不能留作种用。五是仔猪断奶后2个情期不发情及配种后连续2次返情、空杯、屡配不孕、习惯性流产的母猪,不能再作为种用,要及时淘汰。
二、母猪配种前、后的细节管理
1、配种前、后的炎症检查
  配种是养猪生产中非常重要的一个环节,只有做好配种过程中的细节管理,猪场的生产水平才会高、经济效益才会好。笔者认为养猪场繁殖水平不高的一个非常重要的原因就是配种过程中一些细节的漏管。如对配种母猪缺乏阴道及子宫内环境的检查,而若母猪患有严重炎症,配种后受孕会较困难。因此,要在配种前对发情母猪进行炎症检查,如果产道有炎症,必须进行冲洗、消炎处理,配种受孕效果将明显提高。
2、配种后的饲喂
  配种母猪的饲喂必须科学,如配种后1个月是母猪受孕、胎儿发育的关键时期,如果不严格控制饲喂量(每头母猪日饲喂妊娠前期料2.0~2.5kg),母猪很容易积累脂肪而长肥,进而造成胎儿早期死亡或发育不良;而且,母猪过肥,产后易无奶。在母猪妊娠后期,必须给予营养丰富且足够的饲料,以满足母体正常生长及胎儿后期发育的需要。
3、产仔前、中、后的细节管理
3.1产仔前
  产仔一定要做到全进全出,且每批待产母猪进产房的时间间隔一定要有7d以上。在这7d内,要完成冲洗、消毒、干燥等工作,这样才能杜绝各种疾病的交叉感染。母猪上产床后,饲养管理人员的动作一定要轻,绝不能鞭打临产母猪,以免造成其发生应激而早产。
3.2产仔中
  正常产仔过程中每头仔猪产出的时间间隔为15~20min。如果间隔时间达40min以上,就应该考虑是轻度难产,在母猪强度怒责又没有仔猪产出时,应马上进行助产。助产时一定要注意卫生,防止产道感染,最好用专用助产手套,助产次数必须适度。
3.3产仔后
(1)仔猪锋利的犬牙易对同窝仔猪造成伤害,且吃奶时易损伤母猪的乳头。目前,仔猪的犬牙一般都会被剪掉,而且一般是从牙根部将犬牙剪掉。这种剪牙方式往往会造成仔猪牙齿断裂、牙龈暴露,进而导致慢性疾病及牙痛。欧盟新的法规在规定猪的福利时要求,仔猪的犬牙必须采用磨平或捶平的方法去除,而不是剪掉。
(2)母猪每窝一般可产10头以上的仔猪,而每窝仔猪内一般会有1~2头弱小仔猪,(体重一般在0.6kg左右)。对于这几头弱小仔猪,最好的办法是处理掉。因为弱小仔猪容易与同窝仔猪争夺奶头,造成同窝仔猪发育不整齐,还容易损伤母猪奶头;还有一个重要原因是弱小仔猪抵抗力差,容易生病,从而感染同窝其它仔猪,也容易造成育肥阶段生长发育不良。
(3)有些养殖户往往将保温灯吊在保温箱固定不变的位置,这是不科学的。因为对于刚出生的仔猪和7日龄以上的仔猪,其需要的温度是不一样的;而且,早晚的温度也不一样,还有不同季节的温度也不一样。所以,一定要根据仔猪大小、季节变化等,决定是否需要开保温箱或调解保温灯的位置。
(4)一般情况下,仔猪从7日龄开始补料,由于是刚开始训练采食饲料,需注意每次添料只能给很少量(用手抓一小把),乳猪料价格很高,不控制号易造成较大浪费。
(5)仔猪吃料后,必须喝足清洁的水。若仔猪饮水器很长时间没有水或水管及饮水器存有脏水,需把水管及饮水器内的脏水放掉并及时补足清洁的饮水;还需要经常检查饮水器是否损坏。如果仔猪喝不上清洁的饮水,就会喝地上的脏水,甚至母猪的尿液,进而诱发肠胃疾病。
4、保育期的细节管理
  仔猪断奶后进入保育舍,对仔猪来讲是一次生存考验(断奶关)。这一阶段是提高成活率、增加育肥期增重的关键时期,如果管理精细,仔猪生长发育快,养殖效益就会好。
(1)要根据仔猪品种分群饲养,因为不同品种仔猪饲养标准及营养标准不一样,日龄、体重也不一样。分群还要兼顾健康状况,便于科学精细管理。
(2)要注意调教管理,使仔猪养成定点吃料、定点睡觉、定点饮水、定点排粪尿的好习惯。相反,若调教不好,易造成猪舍环境不好、饲料浪费,且猪群易发肠道疾病,严重影响猪的生长发育。
(3)要经常检查饮水设施,仔猪若饮水不足,就会出现采食量减少或不食,很容易导致生病,进而造成严重损失。
(4)要根据猪群密度、当天气温变化进行环境条件调节。有些养猪户往往一次性调控保育舍温度及空气质量并保持不变,这是不科学的。
(5)要注意保育期的换料。整个保育期一般要更换3次饲料,每次都应过渡性地换料,让仔猪逐步适应。如仔猪断奶后进入保育舍,一定要饲喂乳猪料(教槽料)7d;第8天开始,饲喂50%乳猪料加50%保育料,过渡饲喂7d;第15天开始,过渡到保育前期料;保育料饲喂15d后,开始饲喂50%保育料加50%小猪料;再饲喂15d,转为小猪料,直到转入生长育肥舍。
5、育肥期的细节管理
  仔猪从保育舍转入生长育肥舍后一般再饲养90d就可以育成出栏,体重可达100kg。但若育肥期不重视细节管理,则很难实现理想的成活率和生长速度。
(1)严格执行全进全出制度,按个体大小、强弱分群饲养,及时隔离或淘汰健康状况差的猪只。
(2)记录每天的饲料采食量,通过记录,可了解猪群的健康状况及饲料质量,有助于确定出栏时间。
(3)每天定时按全群饲养量的3%(不重复)进行体温检测,通过监测猪的体温变化,了解猪群的健康状况。
(4)现代规模化养猪场都采取封闭式饲养,舍内环境非常重要。如温度、湿度的控制及空气质量的调节,都直接影响生长猪的健康及出栏时间。所以,必须根据室内猪群密度、猪群体重、室外天气变化及温度变化来进行调节。
(5)生长育肥舍的饮水器很容易损坏,养殖户必须每天检查1次。如果生长育肥猪饮水不足,易造成其采食量下降、体温升高,甚至引发疾病,严重影响成活率、生长速度和出栏时间。
6、结束语
  总之,养猪生产的细节问题,往往容易忽视。要想提高生产水平、提升经济效益,养猪企业必须高度重视养猪生产过程中的每一个环节的细节管理。
Management focuses on the details , the details determine quality, quality affect the future , details of management in our businesses are particularly critical. Especially the pig industry is facing a live animal , often a lot of details in production management and technical management process, and some farmers manage these details often overlooked , resulting in herd production level is not high , enhance economic difficulties . Author pig production process some major aspects , On several easy drain pipe details.
First, the back-up pig elected to stay the course details of management
1 , back boar
When you choose to stay boars , farmers are generally more emphasis on blood and body conformation , in addition to some crucial details also need attention. First, check the number of teats . Whether or genetic boar sow 's teats are dominant and is very stable , so the nipple less poor or uneven development boar can not choose to stay . Second, focus on reproductive performance. Body looks good but poor reproductive performance of boars can not choose to stay . Third, subtle observation. Observed when driving boar stress conditions , breathing changes , set on constantly shake , a slight redness or shake the body , mouth boar saliva flow can not choose to stay . Fourth, check the semen . Sperm scarce, irregular movement , growth is not normal and regular checks failed more than three times the boar can not choose to stay .
2 , gilts
Many farmers choose to stay when gilts are generally more focused on the teat number and size , in addition to some details must be noted . One should sow straight sagging vulva , vagina small and if upward , generally with congenital narrow pelvis , try not to choose to stay . Second, the small group of breeding gilts ( 3 ~ 5 per column ) , the addition to meet its energy , lysine ( daily requirement 19 ~ 21g), calcium, phosphorus and vitamin needs, prohibited the feeding mold variable feed, eliminating the use of mixed meal , recommended ways to feed ad libitum . Third, more than 8.5 months of age are not in heat , 9.0 months of age are not breeding gilts , not reserved for breeding . Fourth slow growth , to the breeding of age but less than the weight of breeding gilts ( stiff pig ) , not reserved for breeding . Fifth, after weaning two estrus estrus and estrus two consecutive breeding , empty cup , repeated with infertility , habitual abortion in sows and can not be used as a species , must be promptly eliminated.
Second, before breeding sows , after the details of management
1 , before mating , after checking inflammation
Breeding pig production is a very important aspect of good breeding only the details of the process management, farm production levels will be high , the economic benefits will be good. I believe that the level is not high pig breeding is a very important reason is that some of the details of the process of breeding drain pipe . Such as the lack of breeding sows within the vagina and uterus to check the environment, and if the sow with severe inflammation , pregnancy will be more difficult after mating . Therefore, prior to breeding sows for estrus inflammation check if there is inflammation of the birth canal , the need for washing, anti-inflammatory treatment, breeding pregnancy outcomes will be significantly improved.
2 , after feeding breeding
Breeding sows fed must be scientific , such as one month after the breeding sow pregnancy, a critical period of fetal development , if not strictly controlled feeding amount ( per sow per day pre- pregnancy feeding material 2.0 ~ 2.5kg), sow very easy to accumulate fat and long fat and cause early fetal death or dysplasia ; Moreover , sow too fat , postpartum easily without milk. In late gestation sows must be given nutritious diet and sufficient to meet the needs of the mother and fetus late normal growth and development .
3, before farrowing , during and after the details of management
3.1 before calving
Litter must do all in all out , and each batch of sows into the delivery room until the interval must be 7d above. In this within 7d , to complete the cleaning and disinfecting , drying , etc., so as to prevent cross-infection of various diseases. After the bed capacity on sow feeding and management personnel action must be light and must not whip labor sow , so as to avoid the occurrence of stress and premature birth .
3.2 litter in
Normal piglets per litter during the time interval of output 15 ~ 20min. If the interval time of 40min or more, you should consider mild dystocia , when they did not sow piglet strength Nuze should be immediately midwifery . Be sure to pay attention to midwifery hygiene to prevent infection in the birth canal , it is best to use a dedicated midwifery gloves , midwifery number must be moderate.
3.3 After calving
( 1 ) piglets sharp fangs easily cause harm to the same litters , and easy to damage the sow's nipples while feeding . Currently, piglets canines generally will be cut , and is generally cut off from the root portion of the canines . This approach often leads to cutting teeth of piglets teeth broken, exposing the gums , leading to chronic illness and pain . New EU legislation in the pig welfare requirements specified piglets canines must be polished or hammer method of removing flat rather than cut .
( 2 ) Average litter sows can produce more than 10 piglets , and piglets per litter within 1 to 2 generally have weak piglets ( weight usually around 0.6kg). For the first few weak piglets , the best way is to get rid of . Because the weak piglets easily compete with the same litters nipple , causing irregular growth with litters , but also easy to damage sow teats ; Another important reason is the weak piglets poor resistance , susceptibility to disease , thus infecting other litter of piglets , but also easy resulting in stunted growth and fattening stages .
( 3 ) Some farmers tend to heat lamp hanging in the incubator fixed position, which is unscientific. Because for newborn piglets and more than 7 days old piglets , which require temperature is not the same ; And, sooner or later, the temperature is not the same , there is not the same temperature in different seasons . So , must be based on the size of the piglets , seasonal change , deciding whether to open an incubator or mediate position heat lamp.
( 4 ) Under normal circumstances, from the 7 -day-old piglets begin feeding, because it is the beginning of training feed intake , feed only need to pay attention to each add a small amount ( with the clutch a little to ) , suckling pig feed prices high, does not control the number could easily lead to a large waste.
( 5 ) after eating pig feed , you must drink enough clean water. If the piglet drinking a long time without water or dirty water pipes and drinking there , you need to drink dirty water inside the pipes and let go and timely complement to clean drinking water ; still need regular check whether water damage . If the pigs do not drink on clean drinking water , the earth will drink dirty water , urine and even sow , then induced gastrointestinal diseases.
4 , the details of the management of conservation
Into the nursery piglets after weaning , piglets speaking is a survival test ( weaned off ) . This phase is to improve the survival rate , increasing the critical period of fattening weight gain , if managed fine, piglets fast growth , breeding efficiency will be good .
( 1 ) According to cluster feeding piglets species, because different varieties of pig rearing standards and nutritional standards are not the same, age, body weight is not the same . Clustering also take into account the health status , to facilitate scientific precision management .
( 2 ) pay attention to tuning management, develop a sentinel pigs eat feed , fixed bed , fixed water, waste discharge point is a good habit . Conversely , if the tune is not good, could easily lead to bad environment barn , feed waste , and the herd prone bowel disease, seriously affecting the growth of pigs .
( 3 ) should always check the drinking water facilities , piglets if less water, there will be no reduction in food intake or food, can easily lead to illness and cause serious damage.
( 4 ) according to herd density , temperature changes in environmental conditions that day adjustment . Some pig farmers are often one-time nursery regulating temperature and air quality and remain unchanged , it is unscientific .
( 5 ) To note refueling conservation period. To replace the entire nursery period is generally three times the feed , each should be transitional refueling , allow piglets to gradually adapt. If entering the nursery piglets after weaning must be fed suckling pig feed ( creep feed ) 7d; 8th day , feeding 50% plus 50% creep feed material conservation , transition feeding 7d; 15th day , early transition to conservation materials ; conservation materials after feeding 15d, began feeding 50% plus 50% of the pig feed conservation materials ; then fed 15d, into pig feed , fattening up into homes .
5 , the details of the management of fattening period
After fattening piglets into the house from the nursery in general can be bred again rearing 90d slaughter , weighing up to 100kg. But if not pay attention to the details of management fattening period , it is difficult to achieve the desired growth rate and survival rate .
( 1 ) strictly enforce all-in/all-out system , according to the individual size, strength cluster feeding , timely isolation or elimination of poor health of pigs .
( 2 ) record daily feed intake , by recording , you can understand the health status and quality of feed pigs , help determine the time of slaughter .
( 3 ) time every day by raising the amount of 3% of the whole group (non-duplicate ) body temperature detected by the temperature change monitoring pigs , understanding the health of the herd .
( 4 ) the modern large-scale pig farms have adopted a closed breeding, discounted environment is very important. Such as the control and regulation of air quality, temperature, humidity , have a direct impact on the health and growth of the pig slaughter time . Therefore, we must be adjusted according to the density of indoor pigs , pigs weight, outdoor weather changes and temperature changes.
( 5 ) drinking fattening homes are easily damaged , farmers must be checked once a day . If the growing and finishing pigs lack of drinking water , which could easily lead to decreased feed intake , body temperature, and even lead to illness , seriously affecting the survival , growth rate and slaughter time .
6, Conclusion
In short , the details of pig production is often easy to overlook . To increase production levels , improve economic efficiency , pig pig production enterprises must attach great importance to the details of the process of managing every aspect .
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